dialysis is carried out for individuals whose kidneys stop functioning. kidney failure leads to a condition wherein your kidney is not in a position to filter out wastes from the blood. this leads to the accumulation of toxins in the bloodstream. in such cases, dialysis performs the role of kidneys and filters out toxins from the blood.
haemodialysis, commonly known as dialysis is one of the ways of treating kidney failures and carrying on life normally. to ensure that the dialysis treatment is effective you need to complement the procedure with the following
disciplined treatment schedule
one needs to work closely with a team of kidney specialists and other professionals from the best hospital for dialysis in hyderabad to carry out this procedure. in some cases, dialysis can be carried out at home as well.
who needs dialysis?
dialysis is usually needed by people who have kidney failure or end-stage renal diseases and other medical conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and lupus. all these can lead to kidney failure.
many times people develop kidney problems for no reason. in many cases, such problems may become severe and lead to the failure of kidneys. these could have been developed over time (chronic) or very suddenly (acute).
it is important to detect signs and symptoms of such diseases at the right time. signs of kidney failure that you might observe can include uremia, nausea, frequent mood swings, blood traces in urine, etc. your doctor may measure your estimated glomerular filtration rate (egfr) to detect the functioning of your kidneys.
kidney diseases have 5 stages. in the 5th stage, a person’s kidneys carry out only 10% to 15% of the filtering process. in such cases, a patient usually needs a transplant. some people undergo dialysis before a transplant is carried out.
how do kidneys function?
your kidneys are a part of the human urinary system. these are bean-shaped organs located below the ribcage on either side of the spine. one of the most important functions of the kidneys is to purify the blood. they filter out toxins gathered by blood while running throughout the body.
the kidneys remove this extra material and ensure that it passes out of the body along with urine. if kidneys fail to carry out this function then these toxins get accumulated and lead to serious medical conditions. and a person may need dialysis.
types of dialysis
dialysis is of two types:
in hemodialysis, a machine is used that removes blood from your body. this blood is purified in a dialyzer and fresh blood is sent to the body. this process takes around 3-5 hours and it is carried out in the speciality hospital or dialysis centres. hemodialysis is carried out thrice a week.
hemodialysis can be carried out at home as well using the dialysis machine. at home, the process of purification is carried out four to seven times a week, each session of fewer hours.
peritoneal dialysis is a type of dialysis wherein tiny blood vessels inside the abdominal lining (peritoneum) filter blood with the help of a dialysis solution. it is a type of cleaning solution that contains water, salt, and other components.
peritoneal dialysis can be carried out at home itself. it is further of two types:
automated peritoneal dialysis: this takes place with the help of a machine
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd): it is carried out manually.
what are the risks associated with dialysis?
while the process of dialysis is carried out to replace the functions of kidneys it can have several side effects. although not everyone experiences these side associated risks it is important to know about them.
some of the risks associated with dialysis are as follows:
hypotension: hypotension is nothing but low blood pressure. it is a very common symptom of dialysis. many times it is accompanied by abdominal cramps, muscle cramps, nausea, etc.
itching: many people complain of experiencing itching either while going through dialysis or after the procedure has been completed.
muscle contractions: the problem of muscle contraction and cramps is very common during dialysis. these can be adjusted by easing the prescription or by adjusting the intake of fluid and sodium.
anaemia: lack of red blood cells (rbcs) in the blood is known as anaemia. this occurs during dialysis because failing kidneys reduce the production of the hormone (erythropoietin) responsible for its production.
sleeping disorders: people going under dialysis often experience trouble sleeping. this is due to aching, uncomfortable, or restless legs
hypertension: it usually happens due to excessive intake of fluids or salt. it can get severe and lead to heart problems or strokes.
problems in bones: overproduction of parathyroid hormone is observed due to kidney failure. this leads to the release of calcium from your bones. dialysis can increase the severity of this condition.
overload of fluid: people undergoing dialysis are recommended to consume a specific amount of fluid. consuming fluids in excessive quantities can cause fatal conditions such as fluid accumulation in the lungs.
amyloidosis: it occurs when proteins present in the blood get deposited on joints and tendons. this can lead to pain, stiffness, and fluid in the joints. it is usually observed in people who have undergone dialysis over many years.
depression: frequent mood swings and depression are very often observed in people experiencing kidney failure. if this condition persists during dialysis then you are recommended to consult your doctor.
pericarditis: inflammation of the membranes surrounding the heart is known as pericarditis. it occurs when a person receives insufficient dialysis.
irregular potassium levels: during dialysis potassium is also removed from your body. if the quantity of potassium removed is too high or too low then your heart might stop beating properly or even stop beating.
procedure of dialysis
a person receiving dialysis from the best hospital for dialysis in hyderabad can be in any position - you can sit on your chair or recline on a bed or even go to sleep if receiving it at night. the complete procedure of dialysis consists of the following steps:
preparation stage: it is a stage where various parameters such as pulse, blood pressure, temperature, etc. are checked. apart from this, your access sites are cleansed.
start of dialysis: in this step, two needles are inserted in your body through access sites and are made sure that they remain secure. each of these needles is connected to a flexible plastic tube which is in turn connected to a dialyzer. one of the tubes carries impure blood to the dialyzer where it is purified and it also allows wastes and extra fluids to pass into dialysate (cleansing fluid). another tube carries purified blood to the body.
symptoms: while the process of dialysis is going on you may experience nausea and abdominal cramps. this is because excess fluid is pulled out from your body. if it becomes very severe then you should ask your care team to adjust the speed of dialysis or medications.
monitoring: since the fluid is withdrawn from your body in excess quantity it causes fluctuation in blood pressure and heart rate. thus these parameters are constantly monitored during the process of dialysis.
finishing dialysis: once the process of dialysis is completed needles are removed from the access site and a pressure dressing is applied. this concludes the session and you are free to carry on with your regular activities.
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