there are various congenital cyanotic heart diseases occurring in the newborn. in these congenital heart diseases, the blood of the newborns fails to get oxygenated in a proper manner. this occurred due to some kind of heart defect. the several diseases are as follows- tetralogy of fallot, pulmonary atresia, double outlet right ventricle, transposition of the great arteries, persistent truncus arteriosus, and ebstein's anomaly.
paediatric cardiology is that branch of cardiology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of these specific heart diseases of newborns and children.
types of paediatric cardiology surgeries
paediatric cardiology can have various branches just as adult cardiology.
1. complex congenital heart diseases
when a baby is in the womb, he or she can be at risk of developing several heart conditions or cardiac abnormalities due to various causes. these wide ranges of cardiac abnormalities in a newborn are termed congenital heart diseases. the flow of blood can easily be affected by these abnormalities. this affects the development and the functioning of the heart as a result. there are several surgeries that can be performed to correct these conditions. the surgeries range from straightforward and simple to very complex. the severity of the surgery depends on the level and type of abnormality of the patient. some surgeries are minor, minimally invasive, or complex open-heart surgeries that require several complex machines.
2. valve repair/replacement
the heart can have several diseases related to its valves. valve repair or replacement surgery is used for treating these valve-related heart diseases. the valves of the heart cease functioning most of the time if they are diseased or damaged. there are several conditions that might cause the dysfunction of the valves of the heart. two of these conditions are valvular insufficiency and valvular stenosis. open heart surgery is generally the traditional treatment for these diseases. through this surgery, the valves are either repaired or replaced. there is the requirement of a bypass machine for this surgery. a bypass machine ensures that blood is pumped throughout the body when the heart is stopped for the surgery.
3. neonatal heart surgery
neonatal heart surgery is performed to repair the defects caused by congenital heart diseases. the categories of these defects could be serious, minor, or even rare. the procedure will vary depending on the type of defect of the heart. the defect might be either inside the heart or in the blood vessels which are present outside the heart. neonatal surgeries are performed on newborns or infants to correct the defects of their hearts.
4. single ventricle heart surgery
sometimes a child is born with just a single ventricle that is strong enough or large enough to pump blood. this is known as the single ventricle defect. this surgery is performed to cure or repair this defect. the defects include hypoplastic left heart syndrome (hlhs), tricuspid atresia, double outlet left ventricle (dolv), heterotaxy defects, and other congenital heart defects. these surgeries are a series of open-heart surgeries that a child has to go through a span of several years. the defects are corrected in this way.
5. interventional cardiology
some of the interventional cardiology procedures include transcatheter valve replacement, pulmonary artery rehabilitation, pda occlusion, hybrid procedures, fetal cardiac intervention, endovascular stenting, diagnostic cardiac catheterization, device atrial septal defect closure, coarctation angioplasty, and stenting, and balloon angioplasty and valvuloplasty.
the best facilities of the care hospital groups include the following:-
cardiac catheterization and intervention for congenital and structural defects
advanced real-time 3d echocardiography & transesophageal echocardiography for children of all age groups
24×7 paediatric cardiac emergency
24×7 ambulatory blood pressure recording
paediatric cardiac critical care
head-up tilt test, 24-hour holter & event recorder
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